Egypt history is one of the oldest and evocative of any country in the world. A cradle of civilization, Ancient Egypt was the epicenter of writing, agriculture, urbanization and organized religion back to 5000 years. Most of the Country’s ancient treasures were built during the time of Pharaohs, Iconic Pyramid of Gaza, Lutos-columned temples of Luxor and Karnak, Aswan and the temples of Abu Simel: strung along the Nile, these monuments represent the enduring legacy of one of the most fabled periods of human history. Egypt’s rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has various foreign influences, including Greek, Persian, Roman, Arab, Ottoman, and European. Epicenter of Christianity in early centuries, Egypt was Islamized in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority.

Egypt offers two countries in one the first is the Egypt of Cairo and the Nile of bustling medieval bazaars, Sphinx, river cruises and Agatha-Christie-era exoticism. The second and just as integral to many visitors is the Egypt of the Red Sea where a rocky desert beauty above the waterline offers a lot to sun seeker and scuba drivers.  Today, the most popular places to visit are not only the monuments of the Nile Valley and the souks, mosques and madrassas of Islamic Cairo, but also fantastic coral reefs and tropical fish, dunes, ancient fortresses, monasteries and prehistoric rock art.

Basic Information

Capital: Cairo
Prime minister: Shairf Ismail
President: Abdl Fattah Al Sissi


The Egyptian pound is the currency of Egypt. It is divided into 100 piastres, or ersh, or 1,000 millimes.


The Mediterranean Sea forms Egypt’s northern border, bringing cooler weather to the seaboard city of Alexandria and providing a coastal getaway for Cairo’s residents. To the east, lies the mountainous Sinai Peninsula, which borders Israel and the Palestinian Territories; to the south, the deserts of Egypt quietly roll into the deserts of Sudan; to the west, the Great Western Desert forms an almost seamless wilderness through Libya and beyond.


Arabic is the official language. English and French are widely spoken.


The best time to visit most sights, including the pyramids and the Valley of the Kings, or diving in the Red Sea, is from February to April and October to November. During these months the heat reminds you that it’s the ‘Land of the Sun’, but not too hot to be enjoyable. At this time, the skies and sea are a perfect blue. The downside is that these are the most popular times of the year for visitors.

Major Religions

About 90% of the population is Muslims, with the majority of the remainder being Christians, including followers of Coptic Christian Faith.

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