Peru , officially the Republic of Peru , lies in western South America. Peru is an extremely biodiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. The region around Machu Picchu, including the Sacred Valley, Inca Trail and colonial city of Cusco, is rich in archaeological sites. On Peru’s arid Pacific coast is Lima, the capital, with a preserved colonial center and important collections of pre-Columbian art.
The economy of Peru is classified as upper middle income by the World Bank and is the 39th largest in the world. Peru is, as of 2011, one of the world’s fastest-growing economies owing to the economic boom experienced during the 2000s. It has a high Human Development Index of .752 based on 2011 data. Historically, the country’s economic performance has been tied to exports, which provide hard currency to finance imports and external debt payments.